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Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin, a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale that took place between July and August 2014. I suppose it was the fact that sounded nice and it had the word ‘ether’, referring to the hypothetical invisible medium that permeates the universe and allows light to travel. Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin, a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine, in late 2013 with a goal of building decentralized applications. At the time of public announcement in January 2014, the core Ethereum team was Vitalik Buterin, Mihai Alisie, Anthony Di Iorio, and Charles Hoskinson. Several codenamed prototypes of the Ethereum platform were developed by the Foundation, as part of their Proof-of-Concept series, prior to the official launch of the Frontier network.

Olympic” was the last of these prototypes, and public beta pre-release. Homestead” was the first to be considered stable. It includes improvements to transaction processing, gas pricing, and security. Metropolis Part 1: Byzantium” was launched on October 16, 2017, and included changes to reduce the complexity of the EVM and provide more flexibility for smart contract developers. SNARK transaction occurring on testnet on September 19, 2017. The event sparked a debate in the crypto-community about whether Ethereum should perform a contentious “hard fork” to reappropriate the affected funds. After the hard fork related to The DAO, Ethereum subsequently forked twice in the fourth quarter of 2016 to deal with other attacks.

By the end of November 2016, Ethereum had increased its DDoS protection, de-bloated the blockchain, and thwarted further spam attacks by hackers. Ether is a fundamental cryptocurrency for operation of Ethereum, which thereby provides a public distributed ledger for transactions. It is used to pay for gas, a unit of computation used in transactions and other state transitions. Mistakenly, this currency is also referred to as Ethereum. As with other cryptocurrencies, the validity of each ether is provided by a blockchain, which is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography. Its block time is 14 to 15 seconds, compared with 10 minutes for bitcoin.

Mining of ether generates new coins at a usually consistent rate, occasionally changing during hard forks, while for bitcoin the rate halves every 4 years. For proof-of-work, it uses the Ethash algorithm which reduces the advantage of specialized ASICs in mining. Ethereum gas units each have a price that can be specified in a transaction. This is typically measured in Gwei.

Bitcoin transactions usually have fees specified in satoshis per byte. Transaction fees are generally considerably lower for ether than for Bitcoin. Ethereum uses an account system where values in Wei are debited from accounts and credited to another, as opposed to Bitcoin’s UTXO system, which is more analogous to spending cash and receiving change in return. The total supply of ether was Ξ98 million as of January 2018. Casper FFG and CBC are expected to reduce the inflation rate to between 0. Ether can be traded by regular currency brokers, cryptocurrency exchanges, as well as many online cryptocurrency wallets. As of January 2018, at least 150 stores accept ether.

It is a 256-bit register stack, designed to run the same code exactly as intended. It is the fundamental consensus mechanism for Ethereum. The formal definition of the EVM is specified in the Ethereum Yellow Paper. Ethereum’s smart contracts are based on different computer languages, which developers use to program their own functionalities. Smart contracts can be public, which opens up the possibility to prove functionality, e. One issue related to using smart contracts on a public blockchain is that bugs, including security holes, are visible to all but cannot be fixed quickly. One example of this is the 17 June 2016 attack on The DAO, which could not be quickly stopped or reversed.

There is ongoing research on how to use formal verification to express and prove non-trivial properties. A Microsoft Research report noted that writing solid smart contracts can be extremely difficult in practice, using The DAO hack to illustrate this problem. Ethereum Virtual Machine, and its smart contracts. Many uses have been proposed for Ethereum platform, including ones that are impossible or unfeasible.

As of January 2018, there are more than 250 live DApps, with hundreds more under development. Some application examples include: digital signature algorithms, securitized tokens, digital rights management, crowdfunding, prediction markets, remittance, online gambling, social media platforms, financial exchanges and identity systems. Ethereum-based customized software and networks, independent from the public Ethereum chain, are being tested by enterprise software companies. Ethereum-based permissioned blockchain variants are used and being investigated for various projects.

Morgan Chase is developing a permissioned-variant of Ethereum blockchain dubbed “Quorum”. It’s designed to toe the line between private and public in the realm of shuffling derivatives and payments. Ethereum distributed ledger and smart contract platform. In Ethereum all smart contracts are stored publicly on every node of the blockchain, which has costs. Micro Raiden was launched November 2017. 2017 their plan to launch a scaling solution called Plasma which creates “child” blockchains to the “main” parent blockchain. Ethereum’s blockchain uses Merkle trees, for security reasons, to improve scalability, and to optimize transaction hashing.

A finance blogger on FT Alphaville has pointed out that criminals are using Ethereum to run Ponzi schemes and other forms of investment fraud. Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Cryptocurrencies: A Brief Thematic Review Archived 25 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. ETH Holders Vote for the Hard Fork”. Miners Vote Overwhelmingly in Support of Ethereum’s Hardfork”. So where did the name Ethereum come from? Archived from the original on 28 March 2015.