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Wisdom jobs let you make decisions that benefit your long-life career. 3GPPi to improve the mobile phone standard to cope with future technology evolutions and needs. The goals for LTE include improving spectral efficiency, lowering costs, improving services, making use of new spectrum and reformed spectrum opportunities, and better integration with other open standards. LTE standards are in matured state now with release 8 frozen. While LTE Advanced is still under works. Often the LTE standard is seen as 4G standard which is not true. 9G is more acceptable for LTE.

So why it is not 4G? Answer is quite simple – LTE does not fulfill all requirements of ITU 4G definition. Brief History of LTE Advanced: The ITU has introduced the term IMT Advanced to identify mobile systems whose capabilities go beyond those of IMT 2000. The IMT Advanced systems shall provide best-in-class performance attributes such as peak and sustained data rates and corresponding spectral efficiencies, capacity, latency, overall network complexity and quality-of-service management.

The eNBs are interconnected with each other by means of the X2 interface. S1-MME :- Reference point for the control plane protocol between E-UTRAN and MME. S4:- It provides related control and mobility support between GPRS Core and the 3GPP Anchor function of Serving GW. In addition, if Direct Tunnel is not established, it provides the user plane tunnelling. S5:- It provides user plane tunnelling and tunnel management between Serving GW and PDN GW. It is used for Serving GW relocation due to UE mobility and if the Serving GW needs to connect to a non-collocated PDN GW for the required PDN connectivity. S8:- Inter-PLMN reference point providing user and control plane between the Serving GW in the VPLMN and the PDN GW in the HPLMN.

S8 is the inter PLMN variant of S5. Home PCRF and the Visited PCRF in order to support local breakout function. S10:- Reference point between MMEs for MME relocation and MME to MME information transfer. S11:- Reference point between MME and Serving GW. S12:- Reference point between UTRAN and Serving GW for user plane tunnelling when Direct Tunnel is established. Gn-u reference point using the GTP-U protocol as defined between SGSN and UTRAN or respectively between SGSN and GGSN.

Usage of S12 is an operator configuration option. S13:- It enables UE identity check procedure between MME and EIR. SGi:- It is the reference point between the PDN GW and the packet data network. Packet data network may be an operator external public or private packet data network or an intra operator packet data network, e. This reference point corresponds to Gi for 3GPP accesses. Rx:- The Rx reference point resides between the AF and the PCRF in the TS 23.

SBc:- Reference point between CBC and MME for warning message delivery and control functions. It generates temporary identities and allocates them to UEs. It checks the authorization whether the UE may camp on the TA or on the PLMN. Packet Data Network Gateway:┬áThe PDN GW provides connectivity to the UE to external packet data networks by being the point of exit and entry of traffic for the UE. A UE may have simultaneous connectivity with more than one PDN GW for accessing multiple PDNs. The PDN GW performs policy enforcement, packet filtering for each user, charging support, lawful Interception and packet screening. VoLGA stands for “Voice over LTE via Generic Access”.

The GAN provides an overlay access between the terminal and the CS core without requiring specific enhancements or support in the network it traverses. This provides a terminal with a ‘virtual’ connection to the core network already deployed by an operator. The terminal and network thus reuse most of the existing mechanisms, deployment and operational aspects. What Is Cs Fallback In Lte? LTE technology supports packet based services only, however 3GPP does specifies fallback for circuit switched services as well. To achieve this LTE architecture and network nodes require additional functionality, this blog is an attempt to provide overview for same.

To provide these services LTE reuses CS infrastructure when the UE is served by E UTRAN. The keys used for NAS and AS protection shall be dependent on the algorithm with which they are used. IMS enables telecom service providers to offer a new generation of rich multimedia services across both circuit switched and packet switched networks. IMS offers access to IP based services independent of the access network e. IMS defines a architecture of logical elements using SIP for call signaling between network elements and Provides a layered approach with defined service, control, and transport planes. The application plane provides an infrastructure for the provision and management of services, subscriber configuration and identity management and defines standard interfaces to common functionality. The IMS control plane handles the call related signaling and controls transport plane.