This article possibly contains original research. What constitutes electoral fraud varies from country to country. Many kinds of election kuasa forex ebook are outlawed in electoral legislation, but others are in violation of general laws, such as those banning assault, harassment or libel.
In national elections, successful electoral fraud can have the effect of a coup d’état or corruption of democracy. In a narrow election, a small amount of fraud may be enough to change the result. The legality of this type of manipulation varies across jurisdictions. Deliberate manipulation of election outcomes is widely considered a violation of the principles of democracy. In many cases, it is possible for authorities to artificially control the composition of an electorate in order to produce a foregone result.
Another strategy is to permanently move people into an electoral district, usually through public housing. Immigration law may also be used to manipulate electoral demography. A method of manipulating primary contests and other elections of party leaders are related to this. The goal ultimately is to defeat the weak candidate in the general election by the leader of the party that the voter truly supports. Groups may also be disenfranchised by rules which make it impractical or impossible for them to cast a vote. For example, requiring people to vote within their electorate may disenfranchise serving military personnel, prison inmates, students, hospital patients or anyone else who cannot return to their homes. In some cases, voters may be invalidly disenfranchised, which is true electoral fraud.
Stanford University professor Beatriz Magaloni described a model governing the behaviour of autocratic regimes. She proposed that ruling parties can maintain political control under a democratic system without actively manipulating votes or coercing the electorate. Under the right conditions, the democratic system is manoeuvred into an equilibrious state in which divided opposition parties act as unwitting accomplices to single-party rule. Absentee and other remote voting can be more open to some forms of intimidation as the voter does not have the protection and privacy of the polling location. Violence or the threat of violence: In its simplest form, voters from a particular demographic or known to support a particular party or candidate are directly threatened by supporters of another party or candidate or by those hired by them.
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